ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N1817
|1. Title||Proposal to add the letter MODIFIER LETTER DOUBLE APOSTROPHE to the UCS|
|2. Requester's name||Michael Everson, Tapani Salminen, Trond Trosterud|
|3. Requester type||Expert contribution|
|4. Submission date||1997-08-10|
|5. Requester's reference|
|6a. Completion||This is a complete proposal.|
|6b. More information to be provided?||No|
|1a. New script? Name?||No|
|1b. Addition of characters to existing block? Name?||Yes, to the block Spacing Modifier Letters|
|2. Number of characters||1|
|3. Proposed category||Category A|
|4. Proposed level of implementation and rationale||Level 1|
|5a. Character names included in proposal?||Yes|
|5b. Character names in accordance with guidelines?||Yes|
|5c. Character shapes reviewable?||Yes|
|6a. Who will provide computerized font?||Michael Everson|
|6b. Font currently available?||Michael Everson|
|6c. Font format?||TrueType|
|7a. Are references (to other character sets, dictionaries, descriptive texts, etc.) provided?||Yes|
|7b. Are published examples (such as samples from newspapers, magazines, or other sources) of use of proposed characters attached?||Yes|
|8. Does the proposal address other aspects of character data processing?||No|
|1. Has this proposal been submitted before?||No|
|2. Contact with the user community?||Yes, with the institutions producing Nenets books and educating Nenets teachers.|
|3. Information on the user community?||All Nenets speakers, appr. 27,000 according to the 1989 census, and the scholarly community worldwide|
|4a. The context of use for the proposed characters?||Used to write Nenets|
|4b. Reference||Tereshchenko 1965, 1973, 1990|
|5a. Proposed characters in current use?||Yes, by all users of literary Nenets|
|5b. Where?||In Russia, to a certain extent in the Nordic countries, and by the scholarly community worldwide.|
|6a. Characters should be encoded entirely in BMP?||Yes|
|6b. Rationale||Full coverage for one of the most central non-Slavonic languages of Northern Russia|
|7. Should characters be kept in a continuous range?||N/A|
|8a. Can the characters be considered a presentation form of an existing character or character sequence?||No|
|9a. Can any of the characters be considered to be similar (in appearance or function) to an existing character?||No|
|10a. Combining characters or use of composite sequences included?||No|
|10b. List of composite sequences and their corresponding glyph images provided?||No|
|11. Characters with any special properties such as control function, etc. included?||No|
|1. Relevant SC 2/WG 2 document numbers:|
|2. Status (list of meeting number and corresponding action or disposition)|
|3. Additional contact to user communities, liaison organizations etc.|
|4. Assigned category and assigned priority/time frame|
In Nenets orthography (a Northern Samoyedic language spoken in a vast area in European Russia and in Northern Siberia) there are two glottal stop symbols, usually referred to as nasalizable and non-nasalizable respectively. When Nenets orthography was changed from Latinate to Cyrillic after 1937, there was a period where both glottal stops were written as MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE (cf. Pyrerka & Tereshchenko 1948). Then, from 1956 onwards, the present-day distinction was introduced, and since then all Nenets publications have distinguished between the two.
NOTE: As shown by Janhunen 1985 (the most thorough study on the subject), the glottal stops are not distinct phonetically (except possibly as a hypercorrect form among educated speakers). Both prerevolutionary scientific texts (such as Lehtisalo 1958, geared towards phonetic accuracy) and the Latinate orthography of the 1930s cite only one glottal stop. But it is certainly possible to distinguish between two glottal stops morphophonologically. Morphophonologically, the glottal stop corresponding to SINGLE APOSTROPHE (called nasalizable glottal stop) alternates with n and j, whereas the one corresponding to DOUBLE APOSTROPHE (called non-nasalizable glottal stop) alternates with s and d. Historically, several distinct sounds (t, s, c, k, n, h) have in certain positions developed into what phonetically is one glottal stop. In the course of derivation and inflection the glottal stop alternates with the sounds it is historically related to, and it is this alternation that is reflected in the orthography.
The Soviet sources upon which the initial work behind the UCS were based may go back to the orthography from the short post-war period. In any case the omission of the MODIFIER LETTER DOUBLE APOSTROPHE should be corrected.
An alternative solution would be to treat the DOUBLE APOSTROPHE as a digraph: simply as a sequence of two MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHEs in a row. There are several reasons why this should not be done, though:
This letter is of very high frequency in Nenets. Some sentences at random from Tereshchenko 1965:
The most telling thing typographically is easily seen in a monowidth font.
MODIFIER LETTER DOUBLE APOSTROPHE
Barmich, M. Ja. & Z. N.Kuprijanova 1979. Praktikum po neneckomu jazyku. Leningrad.
Janhunen, J. 1986. Glottal stop in Nenets. (Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrienne 196), Helsinki.
Kuprijanova, Z. N., M. Ja.Barmich & L. V.Khomich 1985 . Neneckij jazyk. Leningrad.
Lehtisalo, T. 1947. Juraksamojedische Volksdichtung. (Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrienne 90). Helsinki.
Lehtisalo, T. 1956. Juraksamojedisches Wörterbuch. (Lexica Societatis Fenno-Ugricae 13), Helsinki.
Prokof'jev, G. N. 1936: Samouchitel' neneckogo jazyka. Moskva & Leningrad.
Pyrerka, A. P. & N. M. Tereshchenko 1948. Nenetsko-russkij slovar'. Moskva.
Salminen, T. 1990. "Samoyedology in Finland 1985-1989: the glottal stop", in Problems of Uralistics I, Moscow: Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences, USSR Academy of Sciences, 216-237.
Tereshchenko, N. M. 1947. Ocherk grammatiki neneckogo jazyka. Leningrad.
Tereshchenko, N. M. 1956. Materialy i issledovanija po jazyku nencev. Leningrad.
Tereshchenko, N. M. 1965. Nenecko-russkij slovar'. Moskva.
Tereshchenko, N. M. 1973. Sintaksis samodijskikh jazykov. Leningrad.
Tereshchenko, N. M. 1990. Neneckij epos, Leningrad: Nauka.