ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N1686
DATE: 1998-01-18

DOC TYPE:Expert contribution
TITLE:Draft Proposal to encode OldHungarian in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2
SOURCE:Michael Everson, EGT (IE)
PROJECT:JTC1.02.18.02
< B>STATUS:Proposal.
ACTION ID:FYI
DUE DATE:--
DISTRIBUTION:Worldwide
MEDIUM:Paper and web
NO. OF PAGES:7 (printed at 80%)

A. Administrative

1. TitleProposal to encode Old Hungarian in Plane1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2
2. Requester's nameMichael Everson
3. Requester typeExpert request
4. Submission date1998-01-18
5. Requester's reference 
6a. CompletionThis is a complete proposal.
6b. More information to be provided?No

B. Technical -- General

1a. New script? Name?Yes. Old Hungarian
1b. Addition of characters to existing block?Name?No.
2. Number of characters45 - 163
3. Proposed categoryCategory B.1
4. Proposed level of implementation andrationaleLevel 1
5a. Character names included in proposal?Yes
5b. Character names in accordance withguidelines?Yes
5c. Character shapes reviewable?Yes
6a. Who will provide computerized font?Fr Zoltnor Hosszu Gbor via Michael Everson
6b. Font currently available?Fr Zoltn or HosszuGbor via Michael Everson
6c. Font format?TrueType
7a. Are references (to other character sets, dictionaries,descriptive texts, etc.) provided?Yes.
7b. Are published examples (such as samples fromnewspapers, magazines, or other sources) of use of proposed charactersattached?No
8. Does the proposal address other aspects of characterdata processing?Yes

C. Technical -- Justification

1. Contact with the user community?Yes, with theCentre for the Domestic Languages of Finland and experts on the web (therovsrs discussion list, rov@nimrud.eet.bme.hu).
2. Information on the user community?Old Hungarianenjoys mostly scholarly use, but is also known by other enthusiasts. It mayform a part of the cultural curriculum in Hungarian schools.
3a. The context of use for the proposedcharacters?Used to represent original texts from the 13th-14thcentury as well as modern Hungarian.
3b. ReferenceSee below.
4a. Proposed characters in current use?Yes, byenthusiasts of various kinds.
4b. Where?By scholars and enthusiasts.Schoolchildren in Hungary make use of the script.
5a. Characters should be encoded entirely in BMP?No.Plane 1. But BMP should be considered.
5b. RationaleAccordance with the Roadmap.
6. Should characters be kept in a continuousrange?Yes
7a. Can the characters be considered a presentation form ofan existing character or character sequence? No. Similarity toGermanic Runic is coincidental.
7b. Where? 
7c. Reference 
8a. Can any of the characters be considered to be similar(in appearance or function) to an existing character?No
8b. Where? 
8c. Reference 
9a. Combining characters or use of composite sequencesincluded?Characters can combine to form ligatures.
9b. List of composite sequences and their correspondingglyph images provided?Yes.
10. Characters with any special properties such as controlfunction, etc. included?No

D. SC2/WG2 Administrative

To becompleted by SC2/WG2
1. Relevant SC 2/WG 2 documentnumbers: 
2. Status (list of meeting number and corresponding actionor disposition) 
3. Additional contact to user communities, liaisonorganizations etc. 
4. Assigned category and assigned priority/timeframe 
Other Comments 

The Old Hungarian script is descended from the Kk Turki script used inCentral Asia. It was used by the Szkler Magyars in Hungary before Istvn,first Christian king of Hungary, ordered all reminders, objects, andwritings of the pre-Christian era to be destroyed throughout the nation.Many important documents were destroyed. The "Nikolsberger Alphabet" from1483 gives a complete repertoire of baisc signs. Old Hungarian enjoys anInternet presence today; there are numerous pages dealing with OldHungarian, including some by students (search for rovsrs in AltaVista), and there are a number of active participants on therovsrs discussion list. XXX tells how when he and his friendswere in school, they used to use Old Hungarian to write secret messages toone another, with RTL directionality. Although less wide-spread than Oghamor Runic (which have significant English-speaking audiences), Old Hungarianshould be, because of its popular use, a candidate for BMP encoding. It iscertainly more relevant and popular than Phoenician.

Issues:

  • The script is called rovsrs in Hungarian, from rovs'incised' and rs 'writing'. Various sources call it Old Hungarianor Hungarian Runic.
  • The traditional directionality of the script is RTL. Many of the siteson the internet show rovsrs text in gifs with RTL directionality.One font found on the web so far (by Hosszu Gbor) gives the characters LTRdirectionality; another (by Fr Zoltn) gives its characters RTLdirectionality. Discussion on the rov@nimrud.eet.bme.hu list reveals astrong preference by many users for RTL as the default directionality(unlike the user preference for Etruscan). The glyphs presented in thetables below are RTL glyphs; when LTR directionality is used (via UCSdirectional modifiers), the glyphs must be reversed. The glyphs presentedin the ligature list below are LTR.
  • There is a basic set of 45 letters and a rather large set of ligatures.64 of these ligatures (columns 3-6) were taken from Hosszu Gbor's font.The remaining 71 ligatures were taken from Haarmann 1990 and Fehrn 1975.Are the ligatures a finite set or productive? They appear to be productive.Are the ligatures obligatory? They appear not to be, especially when thescript is used to write modern Hungarian (as in Heves 1997). Should ZERO-WIDTH-JOINER be used for any and all ligatures? If that can be done, then UCS should only encode the basic 45 characters.
  • Is there any punctuation that needs to be coded? A character lookinglike a colon is used as a divider in Fehrn 1975.
  • What is the relation between this script and the Kk Turki script?Should unification be considered? (My view is that it should not; theglyphs and values are too different.)
    U+0001xx00	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LETTER AU+0001xx01	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER AAU+0001xx02	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EBU+0001xx03	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER ECU+0001xx04	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER ECSU+0001xx05	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER EDU+0001xx06	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EU+0001xx07	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER EEU+0001xx08	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EFU+0001xx09	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER EGU+0001xx0A	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EGYU+0001xx0B	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER EHU+0001xx0C	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER IU+0001xx0D	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER IIU+0001xx0E	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EJU+0001xx0F	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER EKU+0001xx10	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER AKU+0001xx11	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER ELU+0001xx12	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER ELYU+0001xx13	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER EMU+0001xx14	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER ENU+0001xx15	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER ENYU+0001xx16	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER OU+0001xx17	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER OOU+0001xx18	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER OEU+0001xx19	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER OEEU+0001xx1A	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EPU+0001xx1B	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER ERU+0001xx1C	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER ESU+0001xx1D	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER ESZU+0001xx1E	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER ETU+0001xx1F	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER ETYU+0001xx20	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER UU+0001xx21	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER UUU+0001xx22	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER UEU+0001xx23	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER UEEU+0001xx24	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EVU+0001xx25	OLD HUNGARIAN LETTER EZU+0001xx26	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LETTER EZSU+0001xx27	OLD HUNGARIAN NUMBER ONEU+0001xx28	OLD
    HUNGARIAN NUMBER FIVEU+0001xx29	OLD HUNGARIAN NUMBER TENU+0001xx2A
    	OLD HUNGARIAN NUMBER FIFTYU+0001xx2B	OLD HUNGARIAN NUMBER ONE
    HUNDREDU+0001xx2C	OLD HUNGARIAN NUMBER ONE THOUSANDU+0001xx2D
    	(This position shall not be used)U+0001xx2E	(This position
    shall not be used)U+0001xx2F	(This position shall not be
    used)U+0001xx30	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ABU+0001xx31	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ALU+0001xx32	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    AMBU+0001xx33	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ANTU+0001xx34	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE ATTU+0001xx35	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ATYU+0001xx36	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE AARU+0001xx37	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    BAU+0001xx38	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE BEU+0001xx39	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE BIU+0001xx3A	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE BOU+0001xx3B	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE CKU+0001xx3C	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    CSAU+0001xx3D	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE DUU+0001xx3E	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE GAU+0001xx3F	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE GEU+0001xx40	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE GIU+0001xx41	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    HAU+0001xx42	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE HIU+0001xx43	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE HEU+0001xx44	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE HOU+0001xx45	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ITU+0001xx46	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    IIRTU+0001xx47	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE IITU+0001xx48	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE LAU+0001xx49	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE LAAU+0001xx4A	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE LEU+0001xx4B	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    LOU+0001xx4C	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE LTU+0001xx4D	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE EMBU+0001xx4E	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE EMPU+0001xx4F	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NAU+0001xx50	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    ENBU+0001xx51	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NCU+0001xx52	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE NDU+0001xx53	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NGYU+0001xx54	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NTU+0001xx55	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    RAU+0001xx56	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE RCSU+0001xx57	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE REU+0001xx58	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE RIU+0001xx59	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ROU+0001xx5A	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    RTU+0001xx5B	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE RUU+0001xx5C	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE SAU+0001xx5D	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SEU+0001xx5E	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SIU+0001xx5F	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    SMU+0001xx60	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SOU+0001xx61	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE SPU+0001xx62	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE STU+0001xx63	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SZTU+0001xx64	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    TIU+0001xx65	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE TPRUSU+0001xx66	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE TPRUU+0001xx67	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE TYAAU+0001xx68	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ULU+0001xx69	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    UNKU+0001xx6A	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE URU+0001xx6B	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE USU+0001xx6C	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE VAAU+0001xx6D	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ZAU+0001xx6E	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    ZRU+0001xx6F	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ZTU+0001xx70	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE ALBU+0001xx71	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ALBTU+0001xx72	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ARTU+0001xx73	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    BTU+0001xx74	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE CSIU+0001xx75	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE DAU+0001xx76	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE DJU+0001xx77	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE DRZSIU+0001xx78	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    GOU+0001xx79	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NCSU+0001xx7A	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE NGY TWOU+0001xx7B	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NPU+0001xx7C	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NTLU+0001xx7D	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    OSU+0001xx7E	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE RCSIU+0001xx7F	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE SK
    U+0001xx80	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE STAU+0001xx81	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ACSU+0001xx82	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE AACSU+0001xx83	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    AANTU+0001xx84	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ARU+0001xx85	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE AARU+0001xx86	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ARUU+0001xx87	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ASU+0001xx88	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    AASU+0001xx89	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE BAAU+0001xx8A	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE GTU+0001xx8B	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE CSINU+0001xx8C	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE DMU+0001xx8D	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    DTU+0001xx8E	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE FIU+0001xx8F	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE FILU+0001xx90	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE FLYU+0001xx91	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE HNU+0001xx92	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    IAKU+0001xx93	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE INU+0001xx94	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE INTU+0001xx95	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE KAANTU+0001xx96	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE KNU+0001xx97	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    LBU+0001xx98	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE LDU+0001xx99	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE LVU+0001xx9A	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE MNDU+0001xx9B	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NAAU+0001xx9C	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    NAAZTIU+0001xx9D	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NCS TWOU+0001xx9E	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE NJU+0001xx9F	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    NKEU+0001xxA0	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE OKU+0001xxA1	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE PAU+0001xxA2	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE PTHRUU+0001xxA3	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE OSKAANTU+0001xxA4	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    RCSINU+0001xxA5	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ROOU+0001xxA6	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ROODU+0001xxA7	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    RVU+0001xxA8	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SK TWOU+0001xxA9	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SKAU+0001xxAA	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    SKAANTU+0001xxAB	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SREU+0001xxAC	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ULIU+0001xxAD	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    VARU+0001xxAE	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE VRU+0001xxAF	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE VISAAU+0001xxB0	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE VMU+0001xxB1	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE VRU+0001xxB2	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    AALDU+0001xxB3	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE MAU+0001xxB4	OLD HUNGARIAN
    LIGATURE GYRTU+0001xxB5	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE ISTU+0001xxB6	OLD
    HUNGARIAN LIGATURE SZMU+0001xxB7	OLD HUNGARIAN LIGATURE
    TRU+0001xxB8	(This position shall not be used)U+0001xxB9	(This
    position shall not be used)U+0001xxBA	(This position shall not be
    used)U+0001xxBB	(This position shall not be used)U+0001xxBC
    	(This position shall not be used)U+0001xxBD	(This position
    shall not be used)U+0001xxBE	(This position shall not be
    used)U+0001xxBF	(This position shall not be
    used)

    List of combinations producing ligatures:



    Bibliography

  • Fehrn Walter Anna. 1975. Az krstl a rovsrsig. 2 vols.Buenos Aires: "Magyar 'skutats" Kiadsa.
  • Haarmann, Harald. 1990. Universalgeschichte der Schrift.Frankfurt/Main; New York: Campus.ISBN 3-593-34346-0
  • Heves Gbor. 1997-12-18. "A magyar rovsrs", http://fang.fa.gau.hu/~heves/.
  • H ossz Gbor. 1997-09-15. "A magyar rovsrs jelene s jvje akorszer informatikai eszkzk felhasznlsval", http://nimrud.eet.bme.hu/rovas/.< LI>Kukai Sndor. 1997. "Rovsrs", http://www.pserve.hu/rovas/.
    HTML Michael Everson, everson@indigo.ie, http://www.indigo.ie/egt, Dublin,1998-01-18---------------------------- --------- List of combinations producing ligatures: [Image] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bibliography * Fehrn Walter Anna. 1975. Az krstl a rovsrsig. 2 vols. Buenos Aires: "Magyar 'skutats" Kiadsa. * Haarmann, Harald. 1990. Universalgeschichte der Schrift. Frankfurt/Main; New York: Campus. ISBN 3-593-34346-0 * Heves Gbor. 1997-12-18. "A magyar rovsrs", http://fang.fa.gau.hu/~heves/. * Hossz Gbor. 1997-09-15. "A magyar rovsrs jelene s jvje a korszer informatikai eszkzk felhasznlsval", http://nimrud.eet.bme.hu/rovas/. * Kukai Sndor. 1997. "Rovsrs", http://www.pserve.hu/rovas/. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- HTML Michael Everson, everson@indigo.ie, http://www.indigo.ie/egt, Dublin, 1998-01-18